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Etoposide is a drug used to treat certain types of cancer and leukaemia. This page explains what etoposide is, how it is given and some of the possible side effects. Each person reacts differently to medicines, so your child will not necessarily suffer from every side effect mentioned. If you have any questions or concerns, please speak to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Genetic aspects of primary immunodeficiency

This booklet has been produced jointly between PID UK, Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) and the Great North Children’s Hospital. It is designed to help answer the questions that families may have about the genetic aspects of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). The information has been reviewed by the PID UK Medical Advisory Panel and Patient Representative Panel and by families affected by PID but should not replace advice from a clinical immunologist or a geneticist.

Intravenous infusion of dihydroergotamine for headaches and migraines

This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains about your admission for a course of infusions of a medicine called dihydroergotamine (or DHE for short) given into a vein. You might have already tried various other medicines to improve your headaches and migraines. This is the next step in treatment. As well as explaining what will happen during the admission, this page tells you about the medicine itself and any side effects that may happen.

Multiple sclerosis and fatigue

Fatigue is an overwhelming sense of tiredness and exhaustion, and is a very common symptom in MS, with most people with MS experiencing fatigue in some way at some time. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains about
the fatigue that is a common feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). As well as describing what we know about fatigue, it also gives some suggestions to manage it.

Bone SPECT/CT scans

This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains about bone scans, how it is used to look at your child’s bones, what is involved and what to expect when your child comes to Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) for the scan.


A biopsy is a small sample of tissue taken from the body so it can be examined under a microscope and tested chemically in the laboratories. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains about the procedure to take a biopsy in the Interventional Radiology department. 

Your child is having an echocardiogram under sedation

Echocardiograms (Echo) are one of the most frequently used scans for diagnosing heart problems. An Echo is an ultrasound scan of the heart. As your child will need to lie very still for the scan, we may suggest that they have sedation to help. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains about echocardiograms, what is involved and what to expect when your child has the scan.

Landau Kleffner Syndrome: language and communication

Children with Landau Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) experience a significant regression in their understanding and use of spoken language. This loss of skills often occurs at the onset of the disease and can be the first sign for families that something is wrong. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) describes how Landau Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) can affect a child’s language skills and outlines recommendations for input and support.

Neuropathic pain medicines

This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains about medicines used to treat neuropathic pain – pain caused by the nerves sending wrong signals to and from the brain. At GOSH, we mainly use amitriptyline, gabapentin and pregabalin, although other medicines are available.

Brugada syndrome

Brugada syndrome is an inherited condition caused by a change in a person’s DNA. People with Brugada syndrome have changes in the microscopic structure of individual heart muscle cells – these changes affect the way that electrical impulses are able to pass through the heart. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains about the medical condition Brugada syndrome, what causes it and where to get help.

Treating and reducing the risk of pressure ulcers after leaving hospital

Our skin is the most important barrier against infection so we need to look after it carefully. Sometimes, for a variety of reasons, people who are unwell develop pressure ulcers. At Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), we recognise that children can develop pressure ulcers too. This information sheet explains about the steps you can continue to take at home to reduce the risk of your child developing a pressure ulcer. It also explains how to manage a pre-existing pressure ulcer at home.

Cleft lip repair

Cleft lip repair is an operation to reconstruct the shape of the lip and nose. If there is a cleft palate as well, then the front half (anterior) of the palate is also repaired. This information sheet explains about the operation to repair a cleft lip and what to expect when your child comes to the North Thames Cleft Service for the operation.