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Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery (main vessel supplying the blood to the lungs) to the aorta (main vessel supplying the blood to the body). This connection is present in all babies in the womb, but should close shortly after birth. In some babies, especially in those born prematurely, this vessel may remain open. This is called a patent or persistent ductus arteriosus.

Gastrostomy management

A gastrostomy is a feeding tube that is inserted directly into the stomach either surgically under direct vision (open or laproscopic), endoscopically (with a camera), or radiologically (x-ray guidance). A gastrostomy tube allows the delivery of supplemental nutrition and medications directly into the stomach. It also provides a mechanism to drain gastric contents if required. In order for gastrostomy feeding to be successful the child or young person must have a functioning gastrointestinal tract.

Morphoea

Morphoea is a rare skin condition where patches of skin become hardened and lose their normal texture, becoming shiny. Sometimes the bones and muscles underneath the patches of skin become affected as well. 

MIBG scan

An MIBG scan is used to look for uncontrolled or abnormal cell growth in the body. It works by injecting a substance called an isotope into your child’s veins. The MIBG scan is named after the chemical ‘iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine’ or MIBG for short, to which the isotope is attached.

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR)

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) occurs when the valve between the ureters (the tubes that carry urine away from the kidneys) and the bladder is not working properly. Urine can flow backwards into the ureters, sometimes as far as the kidneys. If infected urine flows into the kidneys, this can damage them.