Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) means that the blood is travelling through the lungs at a higher pressure than normal. The blood vessels that supply the lungs narrow and thicken, so that the heart has to work a lot harder to pump the blood through the vessels. The vessels cannot pick up as much oxygen as they should, so the body does not get as much oxygen as it needs.
This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital is about cystic fibrosis (CF) – an inherited disease primarily affecting the lungs and digestive system. It happens because the gene that is responsible for making mucus is faulty. Normally, the mucus that lines our internal organs is clear, lubricating and protects against infection. In babies with CF, it is thick, congesting and prone to infection.
Children with autism usually experience difficulty in three main areas: social interaction, social communication and imagination and cognitive flexibility. Each of these diagnostic features can be present in different forms and varying degrees.
A cleft is a hole or gap affecting the tissues in the palate (roof of the mouth). This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the symptoms, causes and treatment of cleft palate and where to get help.
Urinary incontinence is the uncontrolled leakage of urine from the bladder. The amount of urine leakage varies from child to child, as does the time of day when it occurs. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment options for urinary incontinence – also referred to as enuresis if it occurs at night-time – and where to get help.
Urethral stricture is a narrowing of part, or all of, the urethra (the tube that carries urine outside the body from the bladder). Depending on the location and length of the stricture, it can affect a child’s ability to pass urine, either reducing the rate of flow or blocking the flow altogether.
Bladder exstrophy is a congenital abnormality that occurs when the skin over the lower abdominal wall (bottom part of the tummy) does not form properly. The bladder is open and exposed on the outside of the abdomen. In epispadias, the urethra does not form properly.