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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) means that the blood is travelling through the lungs at a higher pressure than normal. The blood vessels that supply the lungs narrow and thicken, so that the heart has to work a lot harder to pump the blood through the vessels. The vessels cannot pick up as much oxygen as they should, so the body does not get as much oxygen as it needs.

Cystic fibrosis

This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital is about cystic fibrosis (CF) – an inherited disease primarily affecting the lungs and digestive system. It happens because the gene that is responsible for making mucus is faulty. Normally, the mucus that lines our internal organs is clear, lubricating and protects against infection. In babies with CF, it is thick, congesting and prone to infection. 

Autism

Children with autism usually experience difficulty in three main areas: social interaction, social communication and imagination and cognitive flexibility. Each of these diagnostic features can be present in different forms and varying degrees.

Cleft palate

A cleft is a hole or gap affecting the tissues in the palate (roof of the mouth). This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the symptoms, causes and treatment of cleft palate and where to get help.

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR)

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) occurs when the valve between the ureters (the tubes that carry urine away from the kidneys) and the bladder is not working properly. Urine can flow backwards into the ureters, sometimes as far as the kidneys. If infected urine flows into the kidneys, this can damage them.

Nephritis

Glomerulonephritis is the term used when the glomeruli become inflamed. This means that the blood is less able to pass through the blood vessels in the glomerulus and so the kidneys cannot make as much urine as usual.

Kidney stones

Kidney (or renal) stones are clusters of tiny crystals that can form in the kidneys. Most clusters are too small to cause any problems and pass out of the body in the urine.

Chronic renal failure

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a term used when the kidneys are not working as well as they should. The term implies that both kidneys are affected. This is because one normal kidney is enough to maintain normal kidney function throughout life.

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