The adenoids are areas of tissue high in the throat behind the nose. With the tonsils, a child’s adenoids help them build up immunity and fight infection. Sometimes the adenoids become infected by bacteria or viruses. This makes them enlarge (become inflamed) and can make it more difficult to breathe through the nose.
Abdominal adhesions are bands of tissue that form inside the abdomen which ‘stick’ organs and tissues together. Normally, the organs in the abdomen have a coating that allows them to slide over and around each other. Generally abdominal adhesions do not cause any problems but occasionally they can lead to obstruction and pain.
Septo-optic dysplasia is the name given to the condition where a child is diagnosed with two or more of the following problems: optic nerve hypoplasia, midline brain abnormalities and pituitary gland abnormalities. It is a rare condition affecting around 1 in every 10,000 births, with boys and girls affected equally.
Anal fissures are tiny tears in the skin around the anus and can be painful. They usually develop as a side effect of constipation. Constipation is the condition where a person passes faeces (poo) less frequently than usual and the poo is harder, drier and painful to pass.
Cutis aplasia means ‘missing skin’ and is a congenital (present at birth) condition where a section of skin, usually on the scalp, is missing. This page explains the condition called cutis aplasia, what causes it and how it can be treated. It also outlines what you can expect when a child comes to Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) for assessment and treatment.
Cutaneous mastocytosis is a condition characterised by increased numbers of mast cells in the skin. Mast cells are part of the immune system.This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis and where to get help.