Urinary retention occurs when someone cannot empty their bladder completely. Instead of all the urine being passed out through the urethra, some remains in the bladder. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of urinary retention and where to get help.
Urinary incontinence is the uncontrolled leakage of urine from the bladder. The amount of urine leakage varies from child to child, as does the time of day when it occurs. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment options for urinary incontinence – also referred to as enuresis if it occurs at night-time – and where to get help.
Urethral stricture is a narrowing of part, or all of, the urethra (the tube that carries urine outside the body from the bladder). Depending on the location and length of the stricture, it can affect a child’s ability to pass urine, either reducing the rate of flow or blocking the flow altogether.
Bladder exstrophy is a congenital abnormality that occurs when the skin over the lower abdominal wall (bottom part of the tummy) does not form properly. The bladder is open and exposed on the outside of the abdomen. In epispadias, the urethra does not form properly.
Transient hyogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) is the name for a condition in which the immune system matures more slowly than usual, but eventually functions entirely normally. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) and where to get help.