Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) means that the blood is travelling through the lungs at a higher pressure than normal. The blood vessels that supply the lungs narrow and thicken, so that the heart has to work a lot harder to pump the blood through the vessels. The vessels cannot pick up as much oxygen as they should, so the body does not get as much oxygen as it needs.
This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital is about cystic fibrosis (CF) – an inherited disease primarily affecting the lungs and digestive system. It happens because the gene that is responsible for making mucus is faulty. Normally, the mucus that lines our internal organs is clear, lubricating and protects against infection. In babies with CF, it is thick, congesting and prone to infection.
Children with autism usually experience difficulty in three main areas: social interaction, social communication and imagination and cognitive flexibility. Each of these diagnostic features can be present in different forms and varying degrees.
A cleft is a hole or gap affecting the tissues in the palate (roof of the mouth). This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the symptoms, causes and treatment of cleft palate and where to get help.
Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) occurs when the valve between the ureters (the tubes that carry urine away from the kidneys) and the bladder is not working properly. Urine can flow backwards into the ureters, sometimes as far as the kidneys. If infected urine flows into the kidneys, this can damage them.
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a term used when the kidneys are not working as well as they should. The term implies that both kidneys are affected. This is because one normal kidney is enough to maintain normal kidney function throughout life.
Urinary retention occurs when someone cannot empty their bladder completely. Instead of all the urine being passed out through the urethra, some remains in the bladder. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of urinary retention and where to get help.