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Oesophageal atresia with tracheo-oesophageal fistula

Oesophageal atresia (OA) is a rare condition where a short section at the top of the oesophagus (gullet or foodpipe) has not formed properly so is not connected to the stomach. This means food cannot pass from the throat to the stomach. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) is another rare condition, which tends to occur alongside oesophageal atresia. This is where part of the oesophagus is joined to the trachea (windpipe).

Gastrostomy management

A gastrostomy is a feeding tube that is inserted directly into the stomach either surgically under direct vision (open or laproscopic), endoscopically (with a camera), or radiologically (x-ray guidance). A gastrostomy tube allows the delivery of supplemental nutrition and medications directly into the stomach. It also provides a mechanism to drain gastric contents if required. In order for gastrostomy feeding to be successful the child or young person must have a functioning gastrointestinal tract.

Adrenaline provocation test

An adrenaline provocation test is carried out to diagnose two conditions. One called Long QT syndrome the other CPVT (Catecholeminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia). This information sheet explains about adrenaline provocation tests, what is involved and what to expect when your child comes to Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) for the test.

Supraventricular tachycardia

This page from Great Ormond StreetHospital (GOSH) explains about the different forms of supraventricular tachycardia – AV node re-entry tachycardia, atrial flutter, AV reciprocating tachycardia, atrial tachycardia and junctional tachycardia – their causes, symptoms and treatment and where to get help.

Arterial lines

The purpose of this guideline is to provide guidance in the use of arterial lines at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH).

NOTE: We review our guidelines regularly and this guideline is now past its review date. The content of the guideline below may not reflect the most recent evidence based practice. Please use with caution.


Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms, which can prevent the heart pumping efficiently. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains how the heart beats normally, what happens when it starts to beat abnormally and how it can be treated.