A birthmark is a mark on the skin that is either present at birth or develops in the first few weeks of life. Birthmarks are very common and most types do not require any treatment at all. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) describes the different types of birthmark that can occur, how they can be treated (if needed) and where to get help.
A heart murmur is an extra or unusual sound made by the heart. It is usually the sound of the blood negotiating its way around the tight bends inside a young child’s heart and resembles a “whooshing” or “swishing” noise.
It is common for children to be highly active, especially at younger ages. In most cases, this is normal behaviour and they will gradually grow out of it. However, for some children, there could be an underlying difficulty, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Tooth plaque is a sticky layer of bacteria (germs) which coats the teeth. When the bacteria in plaque react with sugar (from our food and drink), it produces acid. The acid causes decay or ‘cavities’ in the teeth.
The ear drum is a thin piece of tissue that separates the middle and inner ear from the ear canal. The outer ear (the part you see) collects soundwaves which travel down the ear canal. These soundwaves make the eardrum vibrate. This vibration is transmitted first through the tiny bones (ossicles) in the middle ear, then into the inner ear, where it stimulates nerve endings and sends messages to the brain.
The tonsils are areas of tissue on both sides of the throat, at the back of the mouth. Children's tonsils help them to build up immunity and fight infection. In many children, the tonsils become repeatedly infected with bacteria and viruses, which make them swell and become painful. This is called tonsillitis.
Anaemia is a very common condition where the number of red blood cells or the amount of haemoglobin in red blood cells is less than normal. Iron deficiency anaemia is a specific type of anaemia caused by a lack of the mineral iron in the body. Iron is important in the formation of haemoglobin so a reduced iron level causes a reduced haemoglobin level in the blood.
This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is about pectus carinatum (also known as pigeon chest). Pectus carinatum is a condition in which, instead of being level with the ribs, the breastbone (sternum) is ‘pushed out’ so that the middle of the chest is more pronounced. There may also be areas where the rib cage is depressed or ‘pushed inwards’.