Enteral feeding is a very useful method of ensuring adequate intake of fluid and nutrients in patients who, for a variety of reasons, are unable to use the oral route, or are unable to take sufficient nutrients to maintain growth and development.
The skin is complex with an array of functions. It is the body’s largest organ, protecting the deeper tissues and organs from mechanical damage, chemical damage, bacterial damage, ultraviolet radiation and thermal damage. The skin aids in regulating body temperature, in excretion of urea and uric acid and also synthesis of vitamin D (Marieb 2012).
Landau Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare form of epilepsy occurring in children, usually between the ages of three and nine years, that affects the child’s ability to understand and use language. All children with LKS suffer from abnormal electrical brain waves particularly during sleep and some will have obvious epileptic seizures. Children with LKS often have additional difficulties with behaviour, social interaction, motor skills and learning.
The decision to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment in paediatric and neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) is both complex and emotive for everyone involved. All members of the treating healthcare team, lead by the consultant in charge, should be involved in the decision-making process.This guideline is intended to be used by nurses when situations arise where it may be ethical and legal to consider withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining medical treatment.