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Kelly procedure

This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the Kelly procedure used to strengthen the sphincter at the bladder neck and what to expect when your child is admitted to GOSH for the operation.

Shankar Sridharan

Dr Shankar Sridharan is a Consultant Fetal and Paediatric Cardiologist. He is the Cardiac Network Lead for Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) and is focused upon improving fetal and paediatric cardiac care.

Skin biopsy: punch method

The skin is complex with an array of functions. It is the body’s largest organ, protecting the deeper tissues and organs from mechanical damage, chemical damage, bacterial damage, ultraviolet radiation and thermal damage. The skin aids in regulating body temperature, in excretion of urea and uric acid and also synthesis of vitamin D (Marieb 2012). 

Central venous access devices (long term)

The purpose of this guideline is to provide guidance on the care and use of long term Central Venous Access Devices (CVAD) including advice on dealing with any problems encountered. For the purpose of this guideline, devices that are required to remain insitu greater than a month will be considered a long term CVAD.

Note: While this guideline refers to the 'child' throughout, all activities are applicable to young people


Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy medicine used to treat certain types of cancer and leukaemia. It is also given to children before and after transplants and to treat some inflammatory conditions.


Warfarin is a drug that can be given if there is a risk of a blood clot forming or a clot has developed and treatment is needed to prevent further clots.