Bladder augmentation (also known as a cystoplasty) is an operation to enlarge the bladder using a piece of the body’s own tissue. This is usually the large or small intestine, but the ureters or even the stomach can be used.
Bladder exstrophy is a congenital abnormality that occurs when the skin over the lower abdominal wall (bottom part of the tummy) does not form properly. The bladder is open and exposed on the outside of the abdomen. In epispadias, the urethra does not form properly.