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Skin biopsy: punch method

The skin is complex with an array of functions. It is the body’s largest organ, protecting the deeper tissues and organs from mechanical damage, chemical damage, bacterial damage, ultraviolet radiation and thermal damage. The skin aids in regulating body temperature, in excretion of urea and uric acid and also synthesis of vitamin D (Marieb 2012). 

Central venous access devices (long term)

The purpose of this guideline is to provide guidance on the care and use of long term Central Venous Access Devices (CVAD) including advice on dealing with any problems encountered. For the purpose of this guideline, devices that are required to remain insitu greater than a month will be considered a long term CVAD.

Note: While this guideline refers to the 'child' throughout, all activities are applicable to young people

Medication overuse headache

Medication overuse headache (MOH) develops and gets worse with frequent use of any
medication treatment for headache or migraine. It is also known as ‘rebound headache’. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of medication overuse headache and where to get help.


Digoxin is a medicine used when the heart does not pump properly. It is also used to treat some abnormal heart rhythms.