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Ventriculomegaly is the medical term used to describe enlargement of the ventricles of the brain. Hydrocephalus is the term used when enlargement of the ventricles has been caused by an increase in the pressure of the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) within them. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus and where to get help.

Verrucous vascular malformation

Verrucous vascular malformation is a rare type of birthmark that leads to changes in skin colour and texture. It is called a ‘verrucous’ vascular malformation because the surface sometimes looks a little bit like a verruca or wart. Verrucous vascular malformation can be present at birth and may get worse with age.

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR)

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) occurs when the valve between the ureters (the tubes that carry urine away from the kidneys) and the bladder is not working properly. Urine can flow backwards into the ureters, sometimes as far as the kidneys. If infected urine flows into the kidneys, this can damage them.

Vocal cord paralysis

The vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, sit at the top of the windpipe (trachea). They are two folds of tissue stretched across the voice box (larynx). They vibrate, adjusting the flow of air from the lungs, to produce speech sounds. Vocal cord paralysis is the term used when there is weakness in one or both vocal folds stopping them moving as they should.