A birthmark is a mark on the skin that is either present at birth or develops in the first few weeks of life. Birthmarks are very common and most types do not require any treatment at all. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) describes the different types of birthmark that can occur, how they can be treated (if needed) and where to get help.
Bladder exstrophy is a congenital abnormality that occurs when the skin over the lower abdominal wall (bottom part of the tummy) does not form properly. The bladder is open and exposed on the outside of the abdomen. In epispadias, the urethra does not form properly.
The oesophagus (foodpipe) is the tube that takes food from the back of the mouth to the stomach. It contains muscles which squeeze rhythmically to push food downwards. If the foodpipe becomes blocked or narrowed, food cannot pass into the stomach to be digested.
This information for teenagers from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is about blood poisoning (septicaemia) – a potentially life-threatening infection which is often a result of another infection in the body.
Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome is the name given to a condition where blue marks develop on the skin and internal organs. These blue marks are venous malformations, which occur when the blood vessel wall does not hold its shape as it should so blood flow through the area is slowed down.
This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains why bowel incontinence (encopresis or soiling) can occur in toilet-trained children and young people. It also gives suggestions for treatment and strategies to try at home to improve the situation.
Bronchiolitis is a common type of chest infection that tends to affect babies and young children under a year old. Although many bronchiolitis infections get better without treatment, a small number of children will need treatment in hospital, occasionally in the intensive care unit.This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of bronchiolitis and where to get help.
Brugada syndrome is an inherited condition caused by a change in a person’s DNA. People with Brugada syndrome have changes in the microscopic structure of individual heart muscle cells – these changes affect the way that electrical impulses are able to pass through the heart. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains about the medical condition Brugada syndrome, what causes it and where to get help.
A wide variety of things in the home are powered by button batteries – also known as coin batteries – but they can cause severe problems if swallowed by a child. This information page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the risks of swallowing a button battery, what treatment might be required if your child swallows one and how to prevent it happening in the first place.
Campomelic dysplasia is a type of skeletal dysplasia – a condition where the bones of the skeleton do not form properly before birth. In campomelic dysplasia, the leg bones are bowed – campomelic is the Greek for bent limb. It is a very rare condition, affecting around 1 in every 40,000 births.