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Ventriculomegaly

Ventriculomegaly is the medical term used to describe enlargement of the ventricles of the brain. Hydrocephalus is the term used when enlargement of the ventricles has been caused by an increase in the pressure of the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) within them. This information sheet from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus and where to get help.

Verrucous vascular malformation

Verrucous vascular malformation is a rare type of birthmark that leads to changes in skin colour and texture. It is called a ‘verrucous’ vascular malformation because the surface sometimes looks a little bit like a verruca or wart. Verrucous vascular malformation can be present at birth and may get worse with age.

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR)

Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) occurs when the valve between the ureters (the tubes that carry urine away from the kidneys) and the bladder is not working properly. Urine can flow backwards into the ureters, sometimes as far as the kidneys. If infected urine flows into the kidneys, this can damage them.

Vocal cord paralysis

The vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, sit at the top of the windpipe (trachea). They are two folds of tissue stretched across the voice box (larynx). They vibrate, adjusting the flow of air from the lungs, to produce speech sounds. Vocal cord paralysis is the term used when there is weakness in one or both vocal folds stopping them moving as they should.

Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease is a type of clotting disorder – more common than the better known haemophilia. A specific protein is missing from the blood so that injured blood vessels cannot heal in the usual way. Von Willebrand disease is named after the doctor first described the condition in the early 20th Century. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of Von Willebrand disease and where to get help. 

Warts

A wart is a common type of skin growth that can occur singly or in clusters. They are most common on the hands, but can develop elsewhere on the body such as the feet. Warts are not usually painful, unless they are on the soles of the feet. They are contagious however, so can spread to other parts of the body or even to other people.