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Pectus carinatum

This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is about pectus carinatum (also known as pigeon chest). Pectus carinatum is a condition in which, instead of being level with the ribs, the breastbone (sternum) is ‘pushed out’ so that the middle of the chest is more pronounced. There may also be areas where the rib cage is depressed or ‘pushed inwards’.

Pectus excavatum

This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is about pectus excavatum (also known as funnel chest). Pectus excavatum is a condition in which, instead of being level with the ribs, the breastbone (sternum) is ‘sunken’ so that the middle of the chest looks ‘caved in’.

Perforated ear drum

The ear drum is a thin piece of tissue that separates the middle and inner ear from the ear canal. The outer ear (the part you see) collects soundwaves which travel down the ear canal. These soundwaves make the eardrum vibrate. This vibration is transmitted first through the tiny bones (ossicles) in the middle ear, then into the inner ear, where it stimulates nerve endings and sends messages to the brain.

Periventricular leukomalacia

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of brain injury that is most common in babies born too soon (premature) or at low birthweight. The white matter (leuko) surrounding the ventricles of the brain (periventricular) is deprived of blood and oxygen leading to softening (malacia). The white matter is responsible for transmitting messages from nerve cells in the brain so damage to the white matter can cause problems with movement and other body functions.

Pfeiffer syndrome

Pfeiffer syndrome is a type of complex craniosynostosis. In Pfeiffer syndrome, the coronal, lambdoid and sagittal sutures fuse before birth. Pfeiffer syndrome can be regarded as a spectrum disorder, in that it’s signs and symptoms vary from mild to severe. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of Pfeiffer syndrome and where to get help.

PHACES association

PHACES association is the name given to a collection of features that are often seen together. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) provides information about the medical condition PHACES association (previously referred to as PHACES syndrome) and what to expect when your child comes to GOSH for assessment and treatment.

Pleural effusion 

This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is about pleural effusion. Pleural effusion refers to a build up of fluid in the pleural space, which causes the lung on the affected side to collapse and be unable to inflate.

Pneumothorax 

This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is about pneumothorax. A pneumothorax refers to a build-up of air in the pleural space, which causes the lung on the affected side to collapse and be unable to inflate.

Polio

Polio is an infectious disease caused by any one of the three types of polio virus. In the UK, immunisation is automatically offered to everyone as a baby.