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Periventricular leukomalacia

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a type of brain injury that is most common in babies born too soon (premature) or at low birthweight. The white matter (leuko) surrounding the ventricles of the brain (periventricular) is deprived of blood and oxygen leading to softening (malacia). The white matter is responsible for transmitting messages from nerve cells in the brain so damage to the white matter can cause problems with movement and other body functions.

Pfeiffer syndrome

Pfeiffer syndrome is a type of complex craniosynostosis. In Pfeiffer syndrome, the coronal, lambdoid and sagittal sutures fuse before birth. Pfeiffer syndrome can be regarded as a spectrum disorder, in that it’s signs and symptoms vary from mild to severe. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains the causes, symptoms and treatment of Pfeiffer syndrome and where to get help.

PHACES association

PHACES association is the name given to a collection of features that are often seen together. This page from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) provides information about the medical condition PHACES association (previously referred to as PHACES syndrome) and what to expect when your child comes to GOSH for assessment and treatment.

Pleural effusion 

This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is about pleural effusion. Pleural effusion refers to a build up of fluid in the pleural space, which causes the lung on the affected side to collapse and be unable to inflate.

Pneumothorax 

This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) is about pneumothorax. A pneumothorax refers to a build-up of air in the pleural space, which causes the lung on the affected side to collapse and be unable to inflate.

Polio

Polio is an infectious disease caused by any one of the three types of polio virus. In the UK, immunisation is automatically offered to everyone as a baby.

Polyarteritis nodosa

This page explains about polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), what causes it and how it can be treated. It also gives details of what to expect when your child comes to Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) for assessment and treatment.

Port wine stains

A port wine stain is a vascular birthmark caused by abnormal development of blood vessels in the skin. A port wine stain is sometimes referred to as a capillary malformation. This page explains about port wine stains and what to expect when your child comes to Great Ormond Street Hospital for treatment.

Positional plagiocephaly

Plagiocephaly is a disorder that affects the skull, making the back or side of a baby’s head appear flattened. It is sometimes called deformational plagiocephaly. This pageexplains positional plagiocephaly and what to expect when your child comes to Great Ormond Street Hospital for treatment.