Abdominal adhesions are bands of tissue that form inside the abdomen which ‘stick’ organs and tissues together. Normally, the organs in the abdomen have a coating that allows them to slide over and around each other. Generally abdominal adhesions do not cause any problems but occasionally they can lead to obstruction and pain.
This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains achalasia. The oesophagus (foodpipe) contains muscles which squeeze rhythmically to push food downwards. In achalasia, these muscles and the lower sphincter (ring of muscle at the end of the oesophagus) do not work properly so food cannot pass easily into the stomach to be digested.
Achondroplasia is the most common type of short limb (or disproportionately short stature). The condition affects how some of the bones develop, particularly the limb bones and specifically the upper arms and thighs. There are obvious problems with how some of the facial and skull bones grow, too.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory condition treated at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), that affects the brain and spinal cord. It often follows on from a minor infection such as a cold and is a result of the immune system becoming mis-programmed and activating immune cells to attack the healthy myelin covering the nerves.
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an attack of inflammation (swelling) of the spinal cord. It is caused by the body’s immune system becoming mis-programmed and activating immune cells to attack the healthy myelin covering the nerves in the spine.
Alternating hemiplegia is a rare condition where a child has episodes of weakness affecting one side of the body. This weakness can affect all the muscles on the affected side, not just those in the limbs. After an episode, the weakness improves, but will recur during the next episode.