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Abdominal adhesions

Abdominal adhesions are bands of tissue that form inside the abdomen which ‘stick’ organs and tissues together. Normally, the organs in the abdomen have a coating that allows them to slide over and around each other. Generally abdominal adhesions do not cause any problems but occasionally they can lead to obstruction and pain.

Achalasia

This information from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) explains achalasia. The oesophagus (foodpipe) contains muscles which squeeze rhythmically to push food downwards. In achalasia, these muscles and the lower sphincter (ring of muscle at the end of the oesophagus) do not work properly so food cannot pass easily into the stomach to be digested.

Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is the most common type of short limb (or disproportionately short stature). The condition affects how some of the bones develop, particularly the limb bones and specifically the upper arms and thighs. There are obvious problems with how some of the facial and skull bones grow, too.

Acne

Lots of teenagers experience acne. It’s a very common skin condition among 12 to 15 year olds. It affects the hair follicles in your skin, mainly on your face, chest and back.

Adrenoleukodystrophy

Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a rare inherited disorder treated at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) affecting the adrenal glands and ‘white matter’ of the brain, causing a progressive loss of physical and mental skills.

Alternating hemiplegia

Alternating hemiplegia is a rare condition where a child has episodes of weakness affecting one side of the body. This weakness can affect all the muscles on the affected side, not just those in the limbs. After an episode, the weakness improves, but will recur during the next episode.

Anaemia

Anaemia is a very common condition where the number of red blood cells or the amount of haemoglobin in red blood cells is less than normal. Iron deficiency anaemia is a specific type of anaemia caused by a lack of the mineral iron in the body. Iron is important in the formation of haemoglobin so a reduced iron level causes a reduced haemoglobin level in the blood.

Anal fissure

Anal fissures are tiny tears in the skin around the anus and can be painful. They usually develop as a side effect of constipation. Constipation is the condition where a person passes faeces (poo) less frequently than usual and the poo is harder, drier and painful to pass.

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